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LET Reviewer in Professional Education

Philosophies in Education
LET Reviewer in Professional Education - Philosophies and Theories in Education

► Naturalism stands for a democratic and universal way-everyone must be educated in the same manner.
► Education is in accordance to human development and growth.
► Emphasis is given more on the physical development-informal exercise-and hygiene of the person rather of the 3 R’s.
► Aims to unfold the child’s potential not to prepare him for a definite vocation or social position-but to prepare him to adapt to the changing times and needs.
► Consequently, one’s conduct is governed by impulse, instincts and experience.
► It puts the child at the center of educational process and prepares him to experience life as it is.

► Ideas are the only true reality, the ultimate truths for matter is nothing but just a mere representation of ideas.
► Emphasis is given on knowledge obtained by speculation and reasoning for its central tenet is that ideas are the only things worth knowing for.
► Focus is on conscious reasoning of the mind in order to attain truth. This includes the activities pertinent to the human mind such as introspection and intuition and the use of logic.
► Its aim is to discover the full potentials in child and cultivates it in order to prepare him for a better position in the society and for him to serve the society better.
► Emphasis is given on subjects—philosophy, literature, religion and history—that will develop and enhance the mind of the child.
► Methods used in teaching include lecture, discussion and Socratic dialogue.
► Character development is through emulation of examples and heroes.

► The most effective way to find about reality is to study it through organized, separate and systematically arranged matter—emphasis is on subject matter concerning Science and Mathematics.
► Methods used in teaching include recitation, experimentation and demonstration.
► Character development is through training in the rules of conduct.

► Subject matter is personal choice.
► Learning is based on the willingness of the student to choose and give meaning to the subject.
► Emphasis is given on the students rather than on the curriculum content.
► Students should not be treated as objects to be measured and standardized.
► Methods are geared on giving opportunities for the students for self-actualization and self-direction.
► Character development is through the responsibility of every individual in making a decision.

► Schooling is practical for this will prepare students to become competent and valuable members of the society.
► Focuses on the basics-reading, writing, speaking and the ability to compute (arithmetic).
► Subjects that are given emphasis include geography, grammar, reading, history, mathematics, art and hygiene.
► Stresses the values of hard work, perseverance, discipline and respect to authorities.
► Students should be taught to think logically and systematically-grasping not just the parts but the whole.
► Methods of teaching center on giving regular assignments, drills, recitation, frequent testing and evaluation.

► Involves students to work in groups.
► Methods of teaching include experimentation, project making and problem solving.
► Stresses on the application of what have learned rather that the transfer of the organized body of knowledge.

► Some of the ideas in the past are still being taught because they are significant.
► Curriculum should contain cognitive subjects that cultivate rationality, morality, aesthetics and religious principles. This includes history, language, mathematics, logic, literature, humanities and science.
► Curriculum must be based on recurrent themes of human life for it views education as a recurring process based on eternal truths.
► The teacher must have the mastery of the subject matter and authority in exercising it.
► Aims for the education of the rational person—to develop man’s power of thought—the central aim of this philosophy

► Focuses on the child as a whole rather than of the content or the teacher.
► Curriculum content comes from the questions and interests of the students.
► Emphasis is given on the validation of ideas by the students through active experimentation.
► Methods of teaching include discussions, interaction (teacher with students) and group dynamics.
► Opposes the extreme reliance on bookish method of instruction, learning through memorization, the use of fear and punishment and the four walled philosophy of education.

► A philosophy of learning which asserts that reality does not exist outside of human conceptions. It is the individual who constructs reality by reflecting on his own experience and gives meaning to it.
► Learning is the process of adjusting one’s mental modes to accommodate new experience.

► Schools should originate policies and progress that will bring social reforms and orders.
► Teachers should be an instrument to encourage and lead students in the program or social reforms
► Curriculum emphasizes on social reforms as the aim of education. It focuses on student experience and taking social actions on real problems
► Method of teaching include the problem-oriented type (students are encouraged to critically examine cultural heritage), group discussions, inquiry, dialogues, interactions and community-based learning
► The classroom will serve as a laboratory in experimenting school practices “bringing the world  into the classroom”

► Asserts that human beings are shaped entirely by their external environment.
► The only reality is the physical world.

► Education is a process and should not be taken abruptly. The unfolding of human character proceeds with unfolding of nature.
► The learner should be in control of his destiny.
► Concern is more on methods which include theme writing rather than oral discussions, drills and exercises, playing.
► Asserts the importance of playing in the curriculum.
► Emphasizes motivations and the use of praise and rewards.
► Curriculum includes subjects concerning literary appreciation, physical education, social training in manners and development.

Here is a brief summary of the different School of Thoughts:

► man has rational and moral powers
► man is a rational animal
► back to the basics movements
► 4Rs (reading, (w)riting, (a)rithmetic, religion/right conduct)
► use Standardized test to measure learning
► subject-centered teaching
► authoritarian approach to teaching

► man is a social animal, he actively try to socialize
► simulation and problem solving method
► student-centered teaching
► non-authoritarian approach to teaching

► man has rational and moral powers
► man has the same essential nature with others
► man is a rational animal
► use of the Great books
► meaning of life is in search of unchanging truth
► subject matter-centered teaching
► authoritarian approach to teaching

► no universal nature
► man can choose, has free will
► man exists first then defines himself
► learners learns at their own pace.
► student-centered teaching
► non-authoritarian approach to teaching

► man has no free will
► man is the product of his environment
► man is a complex combination of matter that responds to physical stimuli
► use of rewards and incentives

► man makes his own meaning
► man constructs his own knowledge
► learners draw meaning from what they are taught

► man derives knowledge through reasoning

► man derives knowledge from his senses or experience

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