# Sample Civil Service Exam Questions in Analogy And Logic

### Analogies:

1. Chair is to sitting as bed is to ________.
A) resting
B) sleeping
C) standing
D) jumping

2. Kitten is to cat as puppy is to ________.
A) dog
B) lion
C) bear
D) tiger

3. Flower is to garden as book is to ________.
A) library
B) shelf
C) page
D) cover

4. Ship is to sea as car is to ________.
A) engine
C) driver
D) gasoline

5. Chef is to kitchen as artist is to ________.
A) museum
B) brush
C) stage
D) studio

### Logic:

1. If A is taller than B, and B is taller than C, then which of the following statements is necessarily true?
A) A is taller than C.
B) C is taller than A.
C) A and C are of equal height.
D) The relative heights of A and C cannot be determined from the given information.

2. All dogs are animals. Some animals are cats. Therefore, which of the following statements must be true?
A) All dogs are cats.
B) Some dogs are cats.
C) Some cats are not dogs.
D) All animals are dogs.

3. If some birds are mammals, and some mammals are not reptiles, then which of the following statements is necessarily true?
A) Some birds are not reptiles.
B) All birds are not reptiles.
C) Some birds are reptiles.
D) All birds are reptiles.

4. All ducks are birds. No ducks are reptiles. Therefore, which of the following statements must be true?
A) All birds are reptiles.
B) Some birds are not reptiles.
C) Some reptiles are not birds.
D) All reptiles are birds.

5. If some dogs are friendly, and all friendly animals are playful, then which of the following statements must be true?
A) Some dogs are not playful.
B) All dogs are playful.
C) All playful animals are dogs.
D) All friendly animals are dogs.

### Analogies:

Rationale: The analogy here is that the chair is used for sitting, while the bed is used for sleeping. The other choices do not fit the analogy.

Rationale: The analogy here is that a kitten grows into a cat, just as a puppy grows into a dog. The other choices do not fit the analogy.

Rationale: The analogy here is that a flower is typically found in a garden, just as a book is typically found in a library. The other choices do not fit the analogy.

Rationale: The analogy here is that a ship travels on the sea, just as a car travels on the road. The other choices do not fit the analogy.

Rationale: The analogy here is that a chef works in a kitchen, just as an artist works in a studio. The other choices do not fit the analogy.

### Logic:

1. Answer: A) A is taller than C.

Rationale: This is a transitive relationship, meaning if A is taller than B, and B is taller than C, then A is necessarily taller than C.

2. Answer: C) Some cats are not dogs.

Rationale: The statement "All dogs are animals" does not imply that all animals are dogs, so the conclusion "All animals are dogs" is not necessarily true. Likewise, the statement "Some animals are cats" means that some animals are not cats, so the conclusion "Some dogs are cats" is not necessarily true. However, the conclusion "Some cats are not dogs" is necessarily true, since there are animals that are cats but not dogs.

3. Answer: A) Some birds are not reptiles.

Rationale: The statement "Some birds are mammals" implies that some birds are not reptiles, since mammals and reptiles are different categories. Therefore, the conclusion "Some birds are not reptiles" is necessarily true. The other conclusions are not necessarily true based on the given information.

4. Answer: B) Some birds are not reptiles.

Rationale: Since all ducks are birds and no ducks are reptiles, it follows that some birds are not reptiles. However, it does not follow that all birds are reptiles, nor that all reptiles are birds.

5. Answer: A) Some dogs are not playful.

Rationale: It is possible for some dogs to be friendly but not playful, so the conclusion "Some dogs are not playful" is necessarily true. However, it does not follow that all dogs are playful, nor that all playful animals are dogs, nor that all friendly animals are dogs.