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LET Reviewer in Professional Education

Philosophies in Education and Their Proponents
LET Reviewer in Professional Education - Philosophical Foundation of Education


School of Thought
       ► REALISM

       ► Aristotle
       ► Harris Broudy
       ► John Locke
       ► John Comenius
       ► Johann Henrich Pestalozzi
       ► Jean Jacques Rosseu

       ► Reality is what we observe.
       ► Experience exists only in the physical world.
       ► Mind is like a mirror receiving images only from the physical world.
       ► Nature is a primary self-evident reality, a starting point in philosophizing.
       ► Investigating and reasoning are important in any effective adjustment to the real world in the control of experience.

Role of Teachers
       ► Help develop initiative and ability to control experiences.
       ► Help realize that they can enter into the meaning of their experiences
       ► The students would be taught factual information for mastery.

       ► The use of Scientific Methods
       ► Defining the problem
       ► Observing factors related to problem
       ► Hypothesizing
       ► Testing the hypothesis

Educational Aim
       ► Gives direction and form to individual’s basic potentialities.
       ► Determines the direction of the individual’s inherited tendencies.
       ► Provide an education that could produce a good individual and a good society by meeting 4 principal need of an individual.
       ► Aptitude needs
       ► Self-determination needs
       ► Self-realization needs.
       ► Self-integration needs

Curriculum Emphasis
       ► Study habits
       ► Research skills
       ► Library skills
       ► Evaluation
       ► Observation
       ► Experimentation
       ► Analytical and critical thinking

School of Thought
       ► IDEALISM

       ► Plato
       ► Socrates
       ► Rene Decartes

       ► Emphasize the importance of mind, soul and spirit.
       ► Believes in refined wisdom. Based on the view that reality is a world within a person’s mind.
       ► Schools exist to sharpen the mind and intellectual processes.
       ► One of the oldest school of thoughts with its origin traced back to Plato’s ideas.

Role of Teachers
       ► Transmitter of knowledge
       ► Chief source of inspiration
       ► Creator of educational environment (teacher-centered).

       ► Lecture-Discussion Method
       ► Excursion
       ► Question Method
       ► Project Method

Educational Aim
       ► To develop the individual spiritually, mentally, and morally.

Curriculum Emphasis
       ► Subject Matter of mind:
       ► literature
       ► history
       ► philosophy
       ► mathematics
       ► arts

School of Thought

       ► John Dewey
       ► Charles Sanders Peirce
       ► William James
       ► Richard Rorty

       ► Conservative philosophy
       ► Primarily an American philosophy.
       ► Focuses on reflective thinking. The knowledge process, the relationship of ideas into action.
       ► Encourages people to find processes that work in order to attain desired goals.
       ► Makes use of experience as a source of knowledge

Role of Teachers
       ► Keeps order in the class
       ► Facilitates group work
       ► Encourages and offers suggestions, questions and help in planning
       ► Curriculum planner.

       ► Experimental Methods
       ► Statement of the problem
       ► Hypothesizing
       ► Investigating or data gathering
       ► Testing hypothesis
       ► Forming conclusions
       ► Creative and constructive projects
       ► Field trips
       ► Laboratory work
       ► Activity-centered
       ► Student-centered activities

Educational Aim
       ► For social efficiency.
       ► Train the students to continuously and actively quest for information and production of new ideas needed to adjust to the ever-changing society.

Curriculum Emphasis
       ► Creation of new social order
       ► Integrated and based on the problem of society (NCBTS based).
       ► Subjects are interdisciplinary.


School of Thought

       ► Robert Maynard Hutchins
       ► Mortimer Jerome Adler
       ► Jacques Maritain

       ► Most Conservative philosophy
       ► Education focuses on developing rationality.
       ► Education is preparation for life, and the students should be taught of the world’s permanencies through structured studies.
       ► Truths are constant and universal.
       ► Students must acquire knowledge of unchanging principles.

Role of Teachers
       ► Known Master of Discipline.
       ► Source of knowledge (teacher-centered).

       ► Subject-centered.
       ► Methods of disciplining the mind through reading and discussion
       ► Memorization to develop mastery.

Educational Aim
       ► To develop power of thought, internalize truths that are universal and constant.

Curriculum Emphasis
       ► Great ideas or universal principles.
       ► Focused on arts and sciences.

School of Thought

       ► Plato
       ► Karl Popper
       ► John Stuart Mill
       ► William Bagley

       ► Assumes that values are embedded in the universe waiting to be discovered and understood.
       ► Learning is relatively static, since there is only one way to understand the world that is already written in the book (textbook approach to learning).
       ► Study of knowledge and skills based on the book is imperative to become productive member of the society.

Role of Teachers
       ► Base the lesson to the book.
       ► Prepare well-organized lesson to prove that he is an authority of instruction.

       ► Deductive method
       ► Drill method
       ► Recitation
       ► Memorization

Educational Aim
       ► Provide sound training of the fundamental skills.
       ► Develop individual to perform justly, skillfully and magnanimously.

Curriculum Emphasis
       ► Emphasis on essential skills in reading, writing and counting.
       ► Hard sciences and vocational courses.


School of Thought

       ► William Heard Kilpatrick
       ► John Dewey

       ► Exactly opposite of perennialism.
       ► Assumes that the world changes.
       ► Learner must be taught to be independent, self-reliant thinker, learn to discipline himself, be responsible for the consequences of his actions.
       ► Emphasize on the concept of progress which asserts that human beings are capable of improving and perfecting their environment.
       ► Curriculum must be derived from the needs and interests of the students.

Role of Teachers
       ► Acts as a resource person
       ► Guide or facilitator of learning (student-centered).
       ► Teaches students how to learn and become active problem solvers.
       ► Teachers provide experiences that will make students active and not passive.

       ► Cooperative learning strategies.
       ► Reflective strategies
       ► Problem solving strategies.

Educational Aim
       ► To provide the learner the necessary skills to be able to interact with his ever changing environment.

Curriculum Emphasis
       ► Activity and experience centered on life functions.

School of Thought

       ► Soren Aabye Kierkegaard
       ► Jean-Paul Sartre

       ► Man has no fixed nature and he shapes his being as he lives.
       ► Man exists of his own choice.
       ► Reality is what you experience.
       ► School exists to discover and expand society we live in. Students study
       ► social experiments and solve problems.
       ► Existence precedes essence.

Role of Teachers
       ► Good provider of experiences.
       ► Effective questioner.
       ► Mental disciplinarian.
       ► Creates an atmosphere for active interaction.
       ► Discuss the different situations based on each individual experiences.

       ► Inquiry Approach
       ► Question-Answer Method

Educational Aim
       ► To train an individual for significant and meaningful existence.

Curriculum Emphasis
       ► Subject-centered.
       ► Arts for aesthetic expression
       ► Humanities for ethical values.

School of Thought

       ► Theodore Brameld
       ► George Sylvester Counts
       ► Paulo Reglus Neves Freire
       ► Ivan Illich

       ► Man to a significant degree plan and control his society.
       ► Society is in need of constant reconstruction.
       ► Social change involves a reconstruction of education and the use of education in reconstructing society.
       ► Mankind has the intellectual, technological, and moral potential to create a world civilization of abundance, health and human capacity.

Role of Teachers
       ► Lead the learners in designing programs for social, educational, practical and economic change.
       ► Primary agent of social change.
       ► Initiates lively discussions on controversial issues, political and educational.
       ► Enables the learners to critically examine their cultural heritage.

       ► Community-based projects
       ► Problem-oriented method

Educational Aim
       ► Education is based on the quest for better society.
       ► Education enlivens the students’ awareness of different societal problems.

Curriculum Emphasis
       ► Stresses learning that enable the individual to live in a global milieu.
       ► Controversial national and international issues.
       ► Emphasis on social sciences and social research methods; examination of social, economic and political problems.
       ► Focused on present and future trends.

The Different Philosophies in Education, Their Proponents, Its Assumptions, and Its Implications on Education.
LET Prof. Ed. Reviewer

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